WHO Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation [Link]


Human organ and tissue transplantation

The Sixty-third World Health Assembly,

Having considered the report on human organ and tissue transplantation;1

Recalling resolutions WHA40.13, WHA42.5 and WHA44.25 on organ procurement and transplantation and WHA57.18 requesting an update of the Guiding Principles on Human Organ Transplantation;

Aware of the growing magnitude and utility of human cell, tissue and organ transplantation for a wide range of conditions in low-resource as well as high-resource countries;

Committed to the principles of human dignity and solidarity which condemn the buying of human body parts for transplantation and the exploitation of the poorest and most vulnerable populations and the human trafficking that result from such practices;

Determined to prevent harm caused by the seeking of financial gain or comparable advantage in transactions involving human body parts, including organ trafficking and transplant tourism;

Convinced that the voluntary, non-remunerated donation of organs, cells and tissues from deceased and living donors helps to ensure a vital community resource;

Conscious of the extensive cross-boundary circulation of cells and tissues for transplantation;

Sensitive to the need for post-transplantation surveillance of adverse events and reactions associated with the donation, including long-term follow up of the living donor, processing and transplantation of human cells, tissues and organs as such and for international exchange of such data to optimize the safety and efficacy of transplantation,

1. ENDORSES the WHO Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation;

2. URGES Member States:2

(1) to implement the Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation in
the formulation and enforcement of their own policies, laws and legislation regarding human
cell, tissue and organ donation and transplantation where appropriate;

(2) to promote the development of systems for the altruistic voluntary non-remunerated
donation of cells, tissues and organs as such, and increase public awareness and understanding
of the benefits as a result of the voluntary non-remunerated provision of cells, tissues and
organs as such from deceased and living donors, in contrast to the physical, psychological and
social risks to individuals and communities caused by trafficking in material of human origin
and transplant tourism;

(3) to oppose the seeking of financial gain or comparable advantage in transactions involving
human body parts, organ trafficking and transplant tourism, including by encouraging healthcare
professionals to notify relevant authorities when they become aware of such practices in
accordance with national capacities and legislation;

(4) to promote a system of transparent, equitable allocation of organs, cells and tissues,
guided by clinical criteria and ethical norms, as well as equitable access to transplantation
services in accordance with national capacities, which provides the foundation for public
support of voluntary donation;

(5) to improve the safety and efficacy of donation and transplantation by promoting
international best practices;

(6) to strengthen national and multinational authorities and/or capacities to provide oversight,
organization and coordination of donation and transplantation activities, with special attention
to maximizing donation from deceased donors and to protecting the health and welfare of living
donors with appropriate health-care services and long-term follow up;

(7) to collaborate in collecting data including adverse events and reactions on the practices,
safety, quality, efficacy, epidemiology and ethics of donation and transplantation;

(8) to encourage the implementation of globally consistent coding systems for human cells,
tissues and organs as such in order to facilitate national and international traceability of
materials of human origin for transplantation;

3. REQUESTS the Director-General:

(1) to disseminate the updated Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ
Transplantation as widely as possible to all interested parties;

(2) to provide support to Member States and nongovernmental organizations in order to ban
trafficking in material of human origin and transplant tourism;

(3) to continue collecting and analysing global data on the practices, safety, quality, efficacy,
epidemiology and ethics of donation and transplantation of human cells, tissues and organs;

(4) to facilitate Member States’ access to appropriate information on the donation, processing
and transplantation of human cells, tissues and organs, including data on severe adverse events
and reactions;

(5) to provide, in response to requests from Member States, technical support for developing
national legislation and regulation on, and suitable and traceable coding systems for, donation
and transplantation of human cells, tissues or organs, in particular by facilitating international
cooperation;

(6) to review the Guiding Principles on Human Cell, Tissue and Organ Transplantation
periodically in the light of national experience with their implementation and of developments
in the field of transplantation of human cells, tissues and organs;

(7) to report to the Health Assembly, through the Executive Board, at least every four years
on actions taken by the Secretariat, as well as by Member States, to implement this resolution.
Eighth plenary meeting, 21 May 2010


1 Document A63/24.
2And regional economic international organizations where appropriate.

Prawo